Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Thelma and Louise Essays

Thelma and Louise Essays Thelma and Louise Paper Thelma and Louise Paper t is generally bantered with respect to whether Thelma and Louise is a women's activist film or not. Whichever way the film is eccentric, a street film that is principle characters are female. However, as the story isn't shut to understanding, the ideological pressures are not turned out to be decisively so there is space for contention. I will allude to two articles which hold restricting perspectives. 1 Dargis claims that Thelma and Louise challenges the belief system of a sort by rewrit[ing] the street film while Carlson contends that for [Thelma and Louise] woman's rights never occurred. Carlson claims that the main contrast among this and some other street film is that ladies are plunked down in the number one spot rolls. In the demonstration of endeavoring to accomplish the ideal opportunity which is a key piece of the story, the ladies need to carry on like men. It would be viewed as a women's activist film in the event that they could liberate themselves from men without turning into that which they are attempting to escape from. Images all through the film are utilized to propose this change from ladylike to manly. For instance, as Thelma is pressing she gently packs a female weapon, taking care of it with extraordinary consideration and even appall, attempting to contact it as meager as could reasonably be expected. It gives her dread of masculine articles and maybe of safeguarding herself. At the point when later she spares Louise from the cop who stops them for speeding, the firearm is traded for a bigger, manlier weapon. This could represent a lady getting enabled. Dargis recommends it is utilized as an emblematic maiming. However not exclusively does the man free his phallic image, yet Thelma increases one. This could recommend there is a need to become like men to procure any opportunity. There are numerous equals to the male ruled street film. Uproarious music, quick vehicle, and endless street and they are frequently appeared in an extraordinary since quite a while ago shot, overshadowed by the view of the desert. This is regularly how men in street films are depicted, as though they are a piece of or turning out to be a piece of the scene, or maybe the scene turning into a character. However I dont discover this strategy sufficiently critical to guarantee that the characters are turning out to be men, as it is just a reference. The utilization of outrageous long shots could likewise be deciphered as making the criminals look little and defenseless, despite the fact that this isnt for the most part the case in the average street film. The vehicle as in numerous street motion pictures nearly gets human. In one shot before they initially meet the truck driver, the camera has a nearby on the front vehicle as its driving past the camera, at that point carts down the side at that point tracks and delays at the back of the vehicle to show its image thunderbird. It might be an incident that a winged creature is slang for a lady. The vehicle at that point drives off the screen. In this shot the vision of the vehicle is caught, smooth, sharp and quick. It epitomizes the opportunity of the street. I discover these equals dont lead the watcher to believe the characters to be masculine, despite the fact that it makes a unique inclination as we expect that such characters ought to be men. Dargis contends that the story of Thelma and Louise isn't just about a film in which ladies play the job of men in a street film, however that it is custom-fitting [the street movie] to female particulars. In spite of the fact that the characters all through the film become less ladylike in the manner they act and dress, their aims are not ideologically male. Rather than looking for riches and influence, they look for just opportunity and delight, as indicated by Dargis. Just when male characters attempt to compel their will over these ladies do they fight back to take the force once again from the men, as happens when they lock the police officer in his trunk, or by shooting the attacker. The story works out ideological pressures in power relations. Theres a battle over who picks up the force. The men need the control over ladies and they have it in the start of the film, and ladies need to have control over themselves, which they attempt to accomplish. This shows the ladies arent just plunked down in the featuring jobs as Carlson guaranteed. It includes the breakdown of commonplace film philosophy, where everybody has their place, and a womans place is accommodating to men. We can see Louise starting to get some distance from men as she is gathering her packs toward the start, she calls her darling and gets a replying mail message. This makes her turn his photo face down. Despite the fact that we can not see who the photo is of, the association is made by the demeanor on Louises face as she flips it over. This likewise recommends this male character, just as all other male characters will play a secondary lounge in the remainder of the film. Dargis stands out this from other lead females from different films who gain from men where Thelma and Louise look to one another to endure. However I would differ with this point, as the men despite everything have a huge level of command over the ladies all through the film. The inspiration for running from the law was dread of a male ruled equity framework, and an episode including a male attacker. Louise doesnt have the assets to make it to Mexico, so she depends on her darling to wire her the cash.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Forgotten War essays

The Forgotten War articles 50 years back, war emitted in Korea on June 25, 1950, along the 38th equal that isolated North and South Korea. The socialist controlled North Korea attacked South Korea. The UN (United Nations) considered this attack an infringement of worldwide harmony. The Korean War was the principal war in which a world association, the United Nations, assumed a military job. The United States gave around 90% of the soldiers, military hardware, and supplies that were sent to South Korea. The Soviet Union gave military hardware toward the North Koreans and China battled on the North Koreans. The Korean War was probably the bloodiest war ever. Over a million South Korean individuals were executed and a few million were left destitute. Mutiple and a half million socialist soldiers were slaughtered or injured or announced missing. At the point when North Korea attacked South Korea the North Korean armed force had around one hundred and thirty 5,000 officers. North Korea had tanks, planes, and cannons. South Korea had just ninety-5,000 officers and not very many planes. In South Korea they didn't have any tanks. After the UN powers (90% from America) joined the South Koreans to help, they had over a million fighters and loads of planes, tanks, and cannons. The North Koreans armed force became after the Soviet Union and China sent in excess of 900,000 soldiers during the war. The Korean War denoted the principal fights between fly airplane. Partners were constrained back to the Pusan Perimeter by August 2. The Pusan Perimeter was a fight line in the southeast corner of South Korea. It expanded generally from the city of Pohang on the southeast coast, west around Taegu, and south and southeast about to Pusan. The Naktong River was the limit of a large portion of the region. Associated aircraft and military aircraft from South Korea raised over North Korea. The Soviet Union before long started to flexibly North Korea with MiG-15 planes, and ... <!

Sunday, August 2, 2020

Halloween Costume Ideas for Book Lovers

Halloween Costume Ideas for Book Lovers For book lovers everywhere, Halloween is an excuse to dress up as your favorite character andâ€"even if just for a nightâ€"bask in the fictional world an author has created (while perhaps enjoying some trick or treat chocolate in the process). Thats why weve compiled a list of some of the most recognizable literary characters, along with advice and links to help you put the costume together.Scarlett OHara and Rhett ButlerGone with the Wind by Margaret MitchellScarlett OHara and Rhett Butler, from Margaret Mitchells Gone With the Wind, are one of the most widely recognized literary couples. From Rhetts infamous Frankly my dear line to Scarletts irresistible Southern belle charm, their love will go down in history as being as volatile as the war-torn lands burning down around them.You can get as detailed and creative with this one as you want, and for the lady, Scarletts infamous curtain dress is obviously a great choice. For the bookworms who have read Gone With the Wind, youll rememb er that Scarlett wore a very special green dress to visit Rhett in jail. What made it special, of course, was that she made it from the moss-green curtains that were an OHara family heirloom.Here are our Scarlett OHara and Rhett Butler costume ideas. Sources: Fun World Womens Gone with The Wind-Scarlet OHara Costume, 1920s Movie Star MoustacheHester Prynne and Arthur DimmesdaleThe Scarlet Letter by Nathaniel HawthorneHester Prynne is the highly recognizable protagonist of Nathaniel Hawthornes novel, The Scarlet Letter, and is a woman facing social condemnation at the hands of her Puritan neighbors. After believing her husband to be dead, Hester finds comfort in the arms of the local minister Arthur Dimmesdale and bears his daughter, Pearl. Because Hester has no husband with her, she is imprisoned, convicted of the crime of adultery, and sentenced to be forced to wear a prominent scarlet letter A for the rest of her life.To make Hester Prynne come alive for Halloween haunts, all you need is a puritan costume and a way to put the letter A on itâ€"just like Hester Prynne was forced to do. Of course, a sewn red letter would look most realistic, but if youre in a rush, a letter made of red paper or tape can work, as well. For the ministers costume, any black robe with a cross hanging from it will get the idea across.Check out these costume ideas for Hester Prynne and Arthur Dimmesdale. Sources: California Costumes Pilgrim Woman Settler, Priest Shirt CostumeLisbeth SalanderThe Girl with the Dragon Tattoo by Stieg LarssonCreated by Swedish author and journalist Stieg Larsson, Lisbeth Salanderâ€"the punk protagonist of the Millennium Seriesâ€"is one of literatures most captivating tattooed women. As a lead character, alongside journalist Mikael Blomkvist, Lisbeth fights, blackmails and researches her way into capturing several sexual predators, and does so while being described as a pale, skinny young woman with short hair and a pierced nose and eyebrow. She also ride s a motorcycle and doesnt forget any injustices done to her.Among several other tattoos, her most famous is the dragon tattoo that runs across her entire back, so for costumeâ€"this detail will need to be improvised. While short wigs are available to make her punk hairstyle doable, you can find a collection of magnetized or stick-on jewelry to make the facial piercings (except obviously without the pain). A spiked collar and leather jacket will complete the Lisbeth Salander look, and of course, any shirt or dress with a dragon on it. For anyone wanting a truly detailed costume, temporary tattoos of dragons are a good idea.To dress up like Lisbeth Salander, check out these ideas. Sources: Large Dragon Temporary Tattoos, Choker Collar NecklaceKatniss EverdeenThe Hunger Games by Suzanne CollinsWhen Suzanne Collins created Katniss Everdeen in The Hunger Games, she not only created a memorable image of the young rebel archerâ€"she also created a great look for a Halloween costume for any young bookwork flying solo on Halloween. As the leader of the rebellion against the Capitol, Katniss is a great literary character to commemorate and would be widely recognized by readers of all ages, particularly if you incorporate the three-finger salute throughout your night of haunting.Katniss stands apart with her practical braided ponytail and archery set. Her costume varies throughout the books and movies but remains mostly leather jackets and knee-high boots over various apocalyptic basic T-shirts and cargo pants. Her signature Mockingjay pin also completes the look and can be purchased online.Here are some costume ideas for Katniss Everdeen. Sources: The Hunger Games Deluxe Katniss Costume, The Hunger Games Movie Mockingjay Prop Rep Pin

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Annotated Bibliography On The Novel Frankenstein

Annotated Works Cited Bentley, Colene. Family, Humanity, Polity: Theorizing the Basis and Boundaries of Political Community in Frankenstein. Bloom s Literary Reference Online [Facts On File News Services]. N.p., 2005. Web. 26 Apr. 2015. This source went over multiple themes in the novel Frankenstein, one of them being the pursuit of knowledge. I found this as a great example of the pursuit of knowledge, and was compelled to use it for one of my notecards. Birkhead, Edith. Later Developments of the Tale of Terror. Bloom s Literary Reference Online [Facts On File News Services]. N.p., 1921. Web. 29 Apr. 2015. This source goes over the later forms of the horror story and it included the novel Frankenstein. At one point, it touched upon the alienation and isolation that the creature went through and how it had affected him later on. Carlson, Katherine L. Childhood and Romantic Literature. Encyclopedia of Literary Romanticism. Infobase Publishing: New York, 2010. Bloom s Literary Reference Online [Facts On File News Services]. Web. 8 May 2015. This source is an overview of Romantic novels that involve childhood in them. One example of the Romantic stories with childhood is Frankenstein. It observes that the creature is like a child of Doctor Frankenstein, even though he did not have a true childhood. This contributes to the Romanticism of the story. Englert, Hilary. Responsibility in Frankenstein. Encyclopedia of Themes in Literature. New York: Infobase, 2011.Show MoreRelatedFrankenstein as a Gothic Novel Essay1332 Words   |  6 Pagesthese are elements of a Gothic novel. Though Mary Shelleys Frankenstein, written in the early 19th century, certainly contains many components of a Gothic novel, can it be correctly grouped under that genre? A definition of a Gothic novel; according to Tracy, is a description of a fallen world. We experience this fallen world though the aspects of a novel: plot, setting, characterization, and theme (De Vore, Domenic, Kwan and Reidy). As well, early Gothic novels have characterized themselvesRead MoreFrankenstein: Theme of Abortion1559 Words   |  7 PagesFrankenstein: The Theme of Abortion Most of us have read the novel Frankenstein. There are many themes that come along with one of the first gothic, romantic science fiction novels of the 17th century. Mary Shelly used her background life to create this horror book. She influenced future horror films for decades to come, Halloween costume ideas and quote upon quotes. Although this book carried the obvious Halloween-feel themes Shelly had a greater meaning for the book. Shelly believed in the needRead MoreEvolution of Horror Essays1497 Words   |  6 Pagesunholy abominations have brought fear to the hearts of audiences in commercially convenient doses. Noel Carroll, Ph.D., in his article â€Å"The Nature of Horror†, argues that the existence of monsters and supernatural entities alone do not define a horror novel or film â€Å"for monsters inhabit all sorts of stories, such as fairy tales, myths, and odysseys, that we are not wont to identify as horror† (Carroll). One can therefore infer that the absenc e of such creatures in either media can absolutely still yieldRead MoreFrankenstein, By Mary Shelley1727 Words   |  7 Pages Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein is one of the most well known gothic horror novels ever written. It was written during the Industrial Revolution, which explains why it explores the dangers of too much knowledge. This book serves as an ominous warning that warns us that the power of science, if not properly limited, will cause misfortune and unhappiness. Frankenstein s monster, although an incredible feat of science, quickly leads to one tragedy after the next, before ultimately leading to Frankenstein’sRead MoreAnalysis Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein3500 Words   |  14 Pagesinsufficient and controversial. In her gothic novel Frankenstein, Mary Shelley utilizes mystery and horror to chronicle the story of a creator and his responsibility to his creation. Shelley develops questions of responsibility by examining just how much responsibili ty the creator has to its creation and how much responsibility the creation has to its creator. The lack of understanding and agreement over the answers to these questions causes conflict in the novel and continues to cause conflict to this

Monday, May 11, 2020

Criticism of Capitalism in The Great Gatsby by Fitzgerald...

Criticism of Capitalism in The Great Gatsby by Fitzgerald In The Great Gatsby, Fitzgerald creates an artificial world where money is the object of everyones desire. The characters, the setting, and the plot are very deeply submerged in a Capitalism that ends up destroying many of them. Fitzgeralds criticism of Capitalism can be seen as a move to subtly promote Socialism, an ideology in which value is placed on the inherent value of an object rather than its market value. In a late collection of notes, Fitzgerald himself proclaims that he is essentially Marxist. [i] Marxism is a specific branch of Socialist theory. Fitzgerald makes Gatsby a novel that is not inherently Marxist or even Socialist, but one that is†¦show more content†¦This is a Capitalist ideal; because the characters have this value and they are corrupt, Fitzgerald is criticizing Capitalism as a system through its values. This class division is painfully apparent throughout the novel. In chapter five, some of the people at Gatsbys party are singing a popular tune of the 1920s, which includes the lyrics: the rich are getting richer/and the poor are getting children/aint we got fun? (101). The flippancy of the lyrics implies a general attitude of the upper classes toward the lower class. Later in the novel, Gatsby describes a young Daisy, who appears gleaming like silver, safe and proud above the hot struggles of the poor (157). This sentence captures the main argument of Marxs The Communist Manifesto. In the Manifesto, he describes the constant conflict between classes, but says that the real struggle is on the part of the lower class. In this book, the upper class is portrayed as being extremely artificial and corrupt. The reason that Gatsby works so hard to become a member of the upper class is to impress a girl who he places a market value on - and he becomes a member of that cla ss through illegalities. When Gatsby buys his house to impress Daisy, he is not simply purchasing property; he thinks he is buying a dream. [ii] At one point in the novel, Nick says that human sympathy has its limits (143). Even the narrator of the story, who has lessShow MoreRelatedThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1379 Words   |  6 PagesIn The Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald presents a plausible image of America’s economy during the 1920’s. The country was in the middle of a post-war economic boom. There was unprecedented growth and a rapid increase in the wealth of the richest Americans (Smiley 1). As it follows the excessive lives of wealthy individuals, the novel highlights the negative effects of an unregulated capitalist economy. Fitzgerald portrays the inequality and unnecessary material extravagance that was caused by faultyRead MoreA Marxist Critical Approach to Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby Essay example1597 Words   |  7 Pages1859 ‘Towards a Critique of Political Economy’ that â€Å"it is not the consciousness of men that determines their existence but their socia l existence that determines their consciousness†. By stating this, Marx sheds light into the workings of ‘The Great Gatsby’ thus showing that the social circumstances in which the characters find themselves define them, and that these circumstances consist of core Marxist principles a Capitalistic society. These principles being ‘commodity fetishism’ and ‘reification’Read MoreMarxist Criticism Of The Great Gatsby1588 Words   |  7 PagesLiterature 14 April 2015 Marxist Criticism of The Great Gatsby Society has evolved to the point where money is the biggest factor in our lives. People spend an incredible amount of time at their workplace for that miniscule pay raise. Money also plays a role in our relationships with the people around us, seen in the fact that people of similar economic status tend to congregate. This desire to gain more money causes conflict, mainly between people who have a great deal of money, and the people whoRead MoreEssay on Jay Gatsby’s Dangerous Illusions in The Great Gatsby1253 Words   |  6 PagesJay’s Dangerous Illusions in The Great Gatsby      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   America is a land of opportunity and hopes and dreams can become reality. The American Dream consists of the notion that the struggling poor can achieve financial success through hard work. F. Scott Fitzgeralds novel, The Great Gatsby, puts this premise to the test while also warning against the dangers of believing too passionately in any dream. The central character, Jay Gatsby, proves a tragic hero who succeeds financially but failsRead More Destruction and Failure of a Generation in Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby1413 Words   |  6 PagesThe Great Gatsby and the Destruction of a Generation      Ã‚   The beauty and splendor of Gatsbys parties masks the decay and corruption that lay at the heart of the Roaring Twenties. The society of the Jazz Age, as observed by Fitzgerald, is morally bankrupt, and thus continually plagued by a crisis of character. Jay Gatsby, though he struggles to be a part of this world, remains unalterably an outsider. His life is a grand irony, in that it is a caricature of Twenties-style ostentation: his closetRead MoreDestruction of Dreams, Failure of Dreamers in Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby1489 Words   |  6 Pages Jay Gatsby, the protagonist of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s novel, The Great Gatsby, is used to contrast a real American dreamer against what had become of American society during the 1920s.   By magnifying the tragic fate of dreamers, conveying that twenties America lacked the substance to fulfill dreams and exposing the shallowness of Jazz-Age Americans, Fitzgerald foreshadows the destruction of his own generation. The beauty and splendor of Gatsbys parties masked the innate corruption within theRead MoreEssay on Symbols of The Great Gatsby 1249 Words   |  5 Pagesafloat. F. Scott Fitzgerald captured this era in his book, The Great Gatsby. Through his many symbols he illustrates the hopes, the forgotten God, and the oppressed Americans of the Twenties. The symbols in The Great Gatsby help convey several different themes, from wealth to loss of morals, to poverty. The green light in The Great Gatsby is an ambiguous symbol. The green light is deceiving at first, tricking the reader into thinking it is merely a symbol of hope. â€Å"Gatsby believed in the greenRead MoreThe Decay of a Dream in F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby1582 Words   |  7 PagesThe Decay of a Dream in The Great Gatsby      Ã‚   The central theme of The Great Gatsby is the decay of the American Dream. Through his incisive analysis   and condemnation   of 1920s high society, Fitzgerald (in the person of the novel ¹s narrator, Nick Carraway) argues that the American Dream no longer signifies the noble pursuit of progress; instead, it has become grossly materialistic and corrupt. Fitzgerald ¹s novel is structured as an allegory (a story that conceals another story): the terribleRead MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald Essay1692 Words   |  7 PagesThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald takes place in the midst of the Roaring Twenties – a time of decadent parties and foolhardy celebration by those of newfound wealth, ushered in by the prosperity of innovation and opportunity in a post-war economy. In the Jazz Age, the American Dream seems to be thriving. Jay Gatsby, a lively entrepreneur in Long Island’s West Egg, uses his success to throw lavish parties in pursuit of a long lost love from the previous decade: Daisy Buchanan. Daisy livesRead MoreCapitalist Americ How Society Lost Itself1744 Words   |  7 Pages Capitalist America: How Society Lost Itself Since the beginning of the Middle Ages around 400 A.D., the economic model of capitalism has been applied upon communities with the intent of experiencing the greatest amount of growth in wealth in the shortest amount of time. In the context of â€Å"The Great Gatsby†, for America, the end of World War I in 1919 represented a great opportunity for capitalists around the nation to further grow their wealth with what seemed to be no downside. However, capitals

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Silver Linings Playbook Chapter 20 Free Essays

The Implied Ending That night I try to read The Bell Jar by Sylvia Plath. Nikki used to talk about how important Plath’s novel is, saying, â€Å"Every young woman should be forced to read The Bell Jar.† I had Mom check it out of the library, mostly because I want to understand women so I can relate to Nikki’s feelings and whatnot. We will write a custom essay sample on The Silver Linings Playbook Chapter 20 or any similar topic only for you Order Now The cover of the book looks pretty girly, with a dried rose hung upside down, suspended over the title. Plath mentions the Rosenbergs’ execution on the first page, at which point I know I’m in for a depressing read, because as a former history teacher, I understand just how depressing the Red Scare was, and McCarthyism too. Soon after making a reference to the Rosenbergs, the narrator starts talking about cadavers and seeing a severed head while eating breakfast. The main character, Esther, has a good internship at a New York City magazine, but she is depressed. She uses fake names with the men she meets. Esther sort of has a boyfriend named Buddy, but he treats her horribly and makes her feel as though she should have babies and be a housewife rather than become a writer, which is what she wants to be. Eventually Esther breaks down and is given electroshock therapy, tries to kill herself by taking too many sleeping pills, and is sent to a bad place like the one I was in. Esther refers to a black man who serves food in her bad place as â€Å"the Negro.† This makes me think about Danny and how mad the book would make my black friend, especially because Esther was white and Danny says only black people can use controversial racial terms such as â€Å"Negro.† At first, even though it is really depressing, this book excites me because it deals with mental health, a topic I am very interested in learning about. Also, I want to see how Esther gets better, how she will eventually find her silver lining and get on with her life. I am sure Nikki assigns this book so that depressed teenage girls will see there’s hope if you just hold on long enough. So I read on. Esther loses her virginity, hemorrhages during the process, and almost bleeds to death – like Catherine in A Farewell to Arms – and I do wonder why women are always hemorrhaging in American literature. But Esther lives, only to find that her friend Joan has hung herself. Esther attends the funeral, and the book ends just as she steps into a room full of therapists who will decide if Esther is healthy enough to leave her bad place. We do not get to see what happens to Esther, whether she gets better, and that made me very mad, especially after reading all night. As the sun begins to shine through my bedroom window, I read the biographical sketch at the back of the book and find out that the whole â€Å"novel† is basically the story of Sylvia Plath’s life and that the author eventually stuck her head in an oven, killing herself just like Hemingway – only without the gun – which I understand is the implied ending of the book, since everyone knows the novel is really Sylvia Plath’s memoir. I actually rip the book in half and throw the two halves at my bedroom wall. Basement. Stomach Master 6000. Five hundred crunches. Why would Nikki make teenagers read such a depressing novel? Weight bench. Bench press. One-hundred-thirty-pound reps. Why do people read books like The Bell Jar? Why? Why? Why? I’m surprised when Tiffany shows up the next day for our sunset run. I don’t know what to say to her, so I say nothing – like usual. We run. We run again the next day too, but we don’t discuss the comments Tiffany made about my wife. How to cite The Silver Linings Playbook Chapter 20, Essay examples

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Pulling The Plug On Mother Earth Essays - Ozone Layer,

Pulling The Plug On Mother Earth Whether it be through intensified media attention, or due to the efforts of prominent scientists and other members of society, we have become increasingly aware of the detrimental effects that technological advances in industry and agriculture have on the global environment. However, as Carl Sagan points out in "Pulling the Plug on Mother Earth" awareness is not enough, nor is society's response to the catastrophic implications of environmental pollution rapid enough. Slowness to implement sound strategies are in part due to the fact that the threats we face are nebulous, since they come in the form of particles of invisible gases and radioactivity, and in part because response to pollution appears to be so costly at individual, governmental and corporate levels. It appears that great material loss, as well as visual manifestation, have been the only ways to galvanize action towards altering and limiting technologies so that adverse chemicals and substances are no longer belched into the environment. For example, Sagan is right on the mark when he indicates that it took the reality that CFCs were destroying the sensitive but protective ozone layer to encourage large chemical companies to begin a gradual phase-out of these substances, even when scientists had already discovered the terrible effects of the chemical combination. Sagan says that to slowly stop usage of such obviously dangerous substances is not enough, for even with current conditions, it is estimated that the damaged ozone layer will require at least 100 years to repair itself. In the interim, we are risking danger to the food chain, global warming, and increased cases of skin cancer. Rather than risk these catastrophes, Sagan calls for the immediate phase-out of CFCs, as well as to improve energy usage, plant trees, and curb the population explosion as supplemental methods to improve the environment. While the cause and effect relationship between technological advances and pollution have certainly influenced public outcry towards change, and influenced corporations to alter their poisoning mechanisms, the immediate change that Sagan calls for will necessarily meet with resistance. Sagan's own"revelation" about mankind's reticence to act unless literally "under the gun" remains a valid point. Destruction of the ozone layer and incidents such as the Exxon oil spill in Alaska are indeed enormous calamities, and we have been cautioned by at least one reputable scientist as to the risks we take by delaying reform, but these events are still not great enough to spawn greater action than handling the immediate situation. It is one thing to agree that car travel pollutes the environment, and to see dense smog in the Los Angeles Basin, but millions will still get in their vehicles tomorrow to drive their jobs. Current technologies available have been incorporated into lifestyle at a very practical level. The large cogs of public and private interests also turn slowly due to this infrastructure of product usage which has become so firmly entrenched. Decisions that were made decades ago, such as automobile transit phasing out train transit, and the manufacture of energy through the building of nuclear plants, effect and influence us right now at very fundamental levels. Just as the ozone layer will take decades to repair itself, society and public acceptance requires time to shift and modify as well, as Sagan does well to point out. The challenge to orchestrate the changes necessary for environmental improvement are further complicated in at least two ways. First, there are conflicting viewpoints as to the role government plays to influence private industry to replace technologically damaging processes with more ecologically sound technologies. Second, to phase out current technologies is a burden many corporations are unwilling to take on; implementation of new technologies adversely affects profit margins. Third, governmental failures in policy, according to Morgensen and Eisenstodt in "Profits are for Rape and Pillage," create a situation where corporations have no incentive to move towards pollution control. Implementation of governmental governmental policies and programs designed to improve the environment fail because there is no incentive for legislators to determine the costs and benefits of their legislation, as there is a lack of appropriate experience in the matter. Legislators focus only on the appearance of implementing solutions for the popular vote, then allow their decisions to be clouded by lobbyists and political maneuverings. The resulting regulatory standards and technological mandates inappropriately micromanage the private sector, limiting their creativity to allocate resources to improve and change. Improving the environment is seen as conflicting with growth in business, and it becomes more of a risk than an opportunity. For example, new regulatory standards have